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Agent Orange Use Outside Of Vietnam

Page 4 of 14

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Agent Orange Updates          
Veteran Issue Updates July 2009          
Gulf War Syndrome      
Gulf War Bulletin Board        
Editorial
 

Agent Orange Pages  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10)  (11)  (12)   (13)  (14)

Page 1    Operation Ranch Hand Herbicides Southeast Asia--Amounts Used1961-1971"
Page 2    Diseases Linked To Agent Orange Exposure
Page 3    Agent Orange Korea 68-69
Page 4    Agent Orange Use Outside Of Vietnam
Page 5    The Forgotten Story of Agent Orange
Page 6    Monsanto Corporation Criminal Investigation Cover-up of Dioxin Contamination
Page 7    Leukemia, Agent Orange Link Found
Page 8    AO claim at Ft McClellan approved for Diabetes, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Page 9    Agent Orange, The Daughter Of A Veteran
Page 10  The Herbicidal Warfare Program In Vietnam, 1961 - 1971
Page 11  Agent Orange Videos
Page 12  Chemical Warfare Photos
Page 13  Monsanto's Agent Orange
Page 14  Veterans exposed To Chemicals  (Bases & Posts Contaminated)

VA has received a listing from the Defense Department of locations outside of Viet Nam where Agent Orange was used or tested over a number of years. The information gives periods of time, locations and chemicals used. It does not contain units involved or individual identifying information. The listings are almost exclusively Army records although there are an extremely limited number of Navy and Air Force records. These listings relate only to chemical efficacy testing and/or operational testing. The records do not refer to the use of Agent Orange or other chemicals in routine base maintenance activities such as spraying along railroad tracks, weed control on rifle ranges, etc. Information on such use does not exist. VA will develop the listing for proof of exposure for claims for disabilities resulting from Agent Orange exposure outside of Viet Nam.
VA does have significant information regarding Agent Orange use in Korea along the DMZ. DoD has confirmed that Agent Orange was used from April 1968 up through July 1969 along the DMZ. DoD defoliated the fields of fire between the front line defensive positions and the south barrier fence. The size of the treated area was a strip of lane 151 miles long and up to 350 yards wide from the fence to north of the civilian control line. There is no indication that herbicide was sprayed in the DMZ itself. Herbicides were applied through hand spraying and by hand distribution of pelletized herbicides. Although restrictions were put in place to limit potential for spray drift, run-off, and damage to food crops, records indicate that effects of spraying were sometimes observed as far as 200 meters down wind. Units in the area during the period of use of herbicide were as follows:

1. The four combat brigades of the 2nd Infantry Division. This includes the following units: a) 1-38 Infantry b) 2-38 Infantry c) 1-23 Infantry d) 2-23 Infantry e) 3-23 Infantry f) 3-32 Infantry g) 109th Infantry h) 209th Infantry i) 1-72 Armor j) 2-72 Armor k) 4-7th Cavalry.
2. 3rd Brigade of the 7th. Infantry Division. This includes the following units: a) 1-17th Infantry b) 2-17th Infantry c) 1-73 Armor d) 2-10th Cavalry.
3. Field Artillery, Signal and Engineer troops were supplied as support personnel as required. The estimated number of exposed personnel is 12,056.

Unlike Viet Nam, exposure to Agent Orange is not presumed for veterans who served in Korea. Claims for compensation for disabilities resulting from Agent Orange exposure from veterans who served in Korea during this period will be developed for evidence of exposure. If the veteran was exposed the presumptive conditions found for Agent Orange exposure apply. www.vba.va.gov/ro/south/spete/news/notes/0304/2.htm

Agent Orange Compensation [Non-Vietnam]: Until recently, the VA would grant compensation to veterans exposed to Agent Orange (AO) outside of Vietnam only if the claimant proved exposure to AO and provided a medical connection between the current disease and that exposure. VA is making an effort to equalize the treatment of all veterans exposed to AO. They recently announced that if exposure outside of Vietnam were proven, and the veteran had one of the ten diseases presumed by law to be related to exposure to AO, the medical connection would be presumed and the claim granted unless there were other disqualifying factors. This was noted in comments on the final rule adding diabetes to the list of “AO diseases” in 38 C.F.R. § 3.309(e), at 66 Federal Register, page 23, 166 (May 8, 2001). In addition, any veteran concerned about exposure to AO during use, manufacture, testing or transport outside of Vietnam, may be given an AO physical by the VA and added to the Agent Orange Registry (VHA Directive 2000-027).
The only real issue is proving exposure. All persons who served in Vietnam are presumed to have been exposed. The VA is determining whether Department of Defense information is sufficient to add some non-Vietnam units to the presumptive exposure list, but none have been added as of June 2001. The following areas outside of Vietnam have been confirmed as places where AO was used:

  • 1. The Korean demilitarized zone in 1968 and 1969 (extensive spraying).
  • 2. Fort Drum, NY in 1959 (testing). Other areas where veterans allege AO to have been sprayed include:
  • 3. Guam from 1955 through 1960s (spraying).
  • 4. Johnston Atoll (1972-197 was used for unused AO storage.
  • 5. Panama Canal Zone from 1960s to early 1970s (spraying).
  • 6. Elgin AFB (Agents Orange and Blue) on Firing Range and Viet Cong Village
  • 7. Wright-Patterson AFB (OH) and Kelly AFB (TX)

FOR RELEASE: May 9, 2003

Evans Asks Secretary Rumsfeld for Information Concerning Agent Orange and Similar Herbicide Usage in Guam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Puerto Rico and Various Locations in the United States
Veterans Need Access to Information to Establish VA Claims Related to Herbicide Exposure
Washington, DC - Congressman Lane Evans of Illinois, the Ranking Democrat on the House Veterans Affairs Committee, has asked Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld for information concerning the use and storage of Vietnam-era herbicides such as Agent Orange, Agent Blue, and Agent White at the Anderson Air Force Base at Yigo, Guam. Evans has been contacted by veterans who report that these herbicides were used in Guam during the Vietnam era. Evans also provided the Secretary with a report which indicates that dioxin has been found in soil at the Air Force Base.

Evans also asked the Secretary for an assessment of the use, testing or storage of Agent Orange, Agent Blue, Agent Purple, Agent White or other herbicides which contain dioxin at locations in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Puerto Rico and various locations in the United States. U.S. locations include sites in Maryland, Florida, Texas, California, Georgia, Mississippi Hawaii, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Arizona and Washington. Evans cautions that the amount of herbicides used in some of these locations may have been small amounts for short term testing and may present no danger to populations.
 
Evans notes that veterans who are claiming service-connection of disabilities which have been associated with herbicide exposure have had serious difficulty in proving exposure. "If the Department of Defense hasevidence that herbicides were used in particular areas, during specific periods of time, that information should be made public so that affected
veterans may receive appropriate assistance in establishing their claims," said Evans. Evans complained, "It is more than 30 years since many of the herbicides were used, yet veterans are still having claims denied because the Department of Defense has not been forthcoming with information concerning the locations where veterans may have been exposed. It is well past the time for full and open disclosure."
_________________________________________________________________

May 7, 2003
Honorable Donald Rumsfeld
Secretary
Department of Defense
Washington, DC 20301-1000

Dear Secretary Rumsfeld:

According to a "Public Health Assessment" of Anderson Air Force Base, Yigo, Guam which my staff has received, dioxin levels have been detected in soil at the Main Base and other locations described in the attached document. I have also received information from veterans who were stationed on Guam andwho have reported the use of Agent Orange, Agent Blue and Agent White during the Vietnam era. I am requesting that you review the enclosed document and provide me with information concerning the use and storage of Vietnam era herbicides, including the contaminant dioxin on Guam. I am also requesting an assessment of the use, testing or storage of Agent Orange, Agent Blue, Agent Purple, Agent White or other herbicides which contain dioxin, including the locations, amounts and relevant dates at the following locations and any other location for which documentation exists:

Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland
Apalachicola National Forest (Sophoppy, Florida)
Avon Air Force Base, Florida
Beaumont, Texas
Brawley, California
Bushnell Army Air Field, Florida
Camp Detrick, Maryland
Dar and Prek Clong, Cambodia

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Eglin Air Force Base, Florida
Fort Gordon, Georgia
Fort Richie, Maryland
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
Guanica, and Joyuda, Puerto Rico
Gulfport, Mississippi
Huntington County, State College, Pennsylvania
Jacksonville, Florida
Kauai, Hawaii
Kingston, Rhode Island
Kompong Cham Province, Cambodia
Laos
Las Marias, Puerto Rico
Las Mesas Cerros and La Jugua, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Loquillo, Puerto Rico
Mauna Loa, Hilo, Hawaii
Operation PACER HO (Disposal at sea)
Pinal Mountains, Globe, Arizona
Pranburi and other locations in Thailand
Prosser, Washington
Rio Grande, Puerto Rico
Wayside and Wilcox, Mississippi

I would appreciate a response to this letter by June 13, 2003. If you have any questions about this request, please contact Mary Ellen Mc Carthy, Democratic Staff Director, Subcommittee on Benefits. Thank you for your efforts to improve services to our Nation's veterans.

Sincerely,

LANE EVANS
Ranking Democratic Member

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cc: The Honorable Anthony J. Principi
The Honorable Daniel L.

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Even more DOD details on Agent Orange usage Outside Vietnam

Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam were tested or stored elsewhere, including some military bases in the United States.

The Department of Defense gave VA a list of dates and locations of herbicide tests and storage. View dates and locations:

§In the U.S. – Herbicide tests and storage 

§Outside the U.S. – Herbicide tests and storage 

View all as PDF: Herbicide Tests and Storage Outside of Vietnam(Department of Defense List) (224 KB, PDF)

 

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Agent Orange: Herbicide Tests and Storage in the U.S.

Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam were tested or stored elsewhere, including many military bases in the United States. Below is information from the Department of Defense (DoD) on projects to test, dispose of, or store herbicides in the U.S. For projects outside the U.S., go

Alaska

Location:
Fort Chaffee, AK
Dates: 5/16/1967 - 5/18/1967, 7/22/1967 - 7/23/1967, 8/23/1967 - 8/24/1967
Project Description: During the period of 12/1966 - 10/1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Derrick's Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and U of HI.
Agents: Basic, in-house, improved desiccants and Orange, Blue
DoD Involvement: Yes

Arizona

Pinal Mountains near Globe, AZ
Dates: 1965, 1966, 1968, and 1969
Project Description: In 1965, the USFS began a land improvement program in the Pinal Mountains. The program called for spraying an area of chaparral with herbicides to accomplish the objectives of multiple land use.
Agents: 2,4-D isooctyl-ester, 2,4,5-t isooctyl-ester, silvex, propyleneglycolbutylether ester, 2,4,5-T butyl ester, 2,4,5-T 2-e-h e
DoD Involvement: No

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California

Location Brawley, CA
Dates: 1950-51
Project Description: The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Here, irrigation water studies were done with the agent. H.F. Arle worked here.
Agents: 2,4-D
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Florida

Location: Orlando, FL; Cocoa, FL
Dates: 1944
Project Description: Tests were conducted in 1944 by the Army in Orlando and Cocoa areas of Florida to determine the value of ammonium thiocyanate and chloride as marking and defoliation agents. They were conducted initially at ground level and later from aircraft.
Agents: Ammonium thiocyanate and zinc chloride
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Near Lake George, FL
Dates: Spring 1944
Project Description: The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Spraying here.
Agents: Zinc chloride
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Orlando, FL at Army Grove Air Force's Tactical Center
Dates: 3/14/1944, 4/12/1944
Project Description: The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent.
Agents: Ammonium thiocynate, zinc chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium arsenate, sodium fluoride
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Marathon, FL
Dates: 3/21/1944 - 3/23/1944
Project Description: The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Spraying was done here.
Agents: Zinc chloride, ammonium sulphamate, ammonium thiocynate
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location: Bushnell Army Air Field, FL
Dates: 2/1945
Project Description: Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick. Here, it was aerial spray experiments on potted plants.
Agents: LN *phenoxy
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Bushnell Army Air Field, FL
Dates: 2/1945 - 4/1945
Project Description: Trials, performed by C.W.S. personnel from Camp Detrick, MD, tested the practicability of severely injuring or destroying crop plants sprayed from smoke tanks mounted on tactical aircraft.
Agents: 2,4-D and its ammonium salt
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Avon Air Force Base, FL
Dates: 2/1951 - 4/1951
Project Description: Trials were conducted at Avon Air Force Base, FL by Chemical Corps with personnel of the Air Force and Navy to determine the practical effectiveness of spraying pure anticrop agents from at low volume from aircraft. C-47 and Navy XBT2D-1 aircraft with various nozzles were used.
Agents: Butyl 2,4 D
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location: Englin Air Force Base, FL
Dates: 11/1952 - 12/1952
Project Description: Two trials: Chemical Corps- concerned with basic fundamental work, using 2,4-D, Air Force-concerned with evaluating prototype large capacity spray system for aircraft installation using 2,4,5-T, primarily. Used 3 atomizing nozzles: Bete Fog Nozzles, Whirljet Spray Nozzles, and Fogjet 1.5F50.
Agents: 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T: 143 and 974, respectively
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location Avon Park Air Force Base, FL
Dates: Spring 1954
Project Description: Series of tests were conducted at Avon Park AFB during the spring of 1954 to study the behavior of chemical anticrop aerial sprays when released from high-speed jet aircraft. The Navy F3D jet fighter was used with Aero 14A Airborne Spray Tanks to disperse the anticrop agents.
Agents: Butyl 2,4-D, butyl 2,4,5-T, Isopropyl 2,4-D
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Jacksonville, FL

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Dates: 7/18/1962 - 7/21/1962
Project Description: The HIDAL was used successfully on an H-34 helicopter to spray herbicidal materials. Therefore, it had not been calibrated previously. Spray tests were performed to do so. This was done under order by OSD/ARPA.
Agents: Purple, Fuel Oil, Mix
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Eglin AFB, FL, C-52A test area
Dates: 1962-70
Project Description: CPT John Hunter discussed vegetation changes and ecological studies of the 2 square mile test area which had been sprayed with herbicides over the period 1962-70.
Agents: Orange (1962-68), Purple (1962-68), White (1967-70), Blue (1968-70)
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Apalachicola National Forest near Sophoppy, FL
Dates: 5/3/1967 - 5/8/1967
Project Description: During the period of 12/1966 - 10/1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick's Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and U of HI.
Agents: Basic desiccants and Orange/Blue
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location: Eglin AFB, FL
Dates: 6/11/1968-9/12/1968
Project Description: A spread factor study was performed by the Army to correlate the spherical drop sizes of both Orange and Stull Bifluid defoliants. It involved development of new techniques to determine spread factors over an extended range of drop sizes. A spinning cup drop generator was used.
Agents: Orange, Bifluid #1, Bifluid#2, Stull Bifluid
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location2 areas in FL, 2 areas in GA, and 1 in TN
Dates: 1968
Project Description: In 1968, emphasis was given to soil applied herbicides for grass control. Applications were made by a jeep-mounted sprayer on small plots or by helicopter on larger plots.
Agents: Bromacil, Tandex, monuron, diuron, and fenuron
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Georgia

: Georgia and Tennessee
Dates: 1964
Project Description: In 1964, helicopter spray tests were conducted on transmission line rights-of-way by the Georgia Power Company and Tennessee Valley Authority in collaboration with Fort Detrick to evaluate effectiveness of several commercially available herbicides.
Agents: Diquat and Tordon 101, various
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Fort Gordon, GA
Dates: 7/15/1967 - 7/17/1967
Project Description: During the period of 12/1966 - 10/1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick's Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and U of HI.
Agents: In-house desiccants mixtures and formulations, Orange and Blue
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: 2 areas in GA, 2 areas in FL, and 1 in TN
Dates: 1968
Project Description: In 1968, emphasis was given to soil applied herbicides for grass control. Applications were made by a jeep-mounted sprayer on small plots or by helicopter on larger plots.
Agents: Bromacil, Tandex, monuron, diuron, and fenuron
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Location: Hilo, HI
Dates: 12/1966
Project Description: Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables. There were Fort Detrick personnel there.
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: State Forest area, 3500 ft.elevation on slope of Mauna Loa, near Hilo, HI
Dates: 12/2/1966, 12/4/1966, 1/12/1967
Project Description: The purpose of this project was to evaluate iso-octyl ester of picloram (TORDON) in mixtures with ORANGE, as a candidate defoliant agent, using ORANGE as standard. There were personnel from Fort Detrick there.
Agents: Orange, M-3140, TORDON ester, 2,4-D ester, 2,4,5-T ester
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

Location: Kauai, HI
Dates: 1967
Project Description: Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables.
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Kauai Branch Station near Kapaa, Kawai, HI
Dates: 6/1967, 10/1967, 12/1967, 2/1968
Project Description: During the period of 12/1966 - 10/1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick's Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and U of HI.
Agents: Blue,diquat,paraquat, Orange, PCP, Picloram, White, HCA, 2,4,5T, Endothall
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Indiania

Location: Vigo Plant CWS, Terre Haute, IN
Dates: 5/1945 - 9/1945
Project Description: Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick. Here, it was aerial trials spraying field grown plants.
Agents: LN *phenoxy
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Jefferson Proving Grounds, Madison, IN
Dates: Summer 1945
Project Description: Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick. Here, it was dropping trials.
Agents: LN *phenoxy
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Kansas

Location: Hays, KS; Langdon, ND
Dates: 1960
Project Description: Two studies on the stem rust of wheat were conducted during 1960 to obtain data on the establishment, development, and destructiveness of artificially induced stem rust epiphytotics.
Agents: Stem rust of wheat
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Location: Fort Knox, KY
Dates: 1945
Project Description: In 1945, a special project known as Sphinx was conducted jointly by CWS and the ARML to investigate the use of chemical agents for increasing the flammability of vegetation prior to flame attack.
Agents: Various
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Maryland

Location: Camp Detrick, MD - Fields A, B, and C
Dates: 1946-47
Project Description: The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots.
Agents: 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-T triethanolamine, tributylphosphate, ethyl 2,4-D, butyl 2,4,5-Ttriet 2,4-D
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Camp Detrick, MD - Fields C, D, and E
Dates: 1948
Project Description: The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots.
Agents: 2,4,5-T, isopropyl phenol carbamate, LN-2426, 2,4-D
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Camp Detrick, MD - Fields C, D, and E
Dates: 1949
Project Description: The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Experiments were done by Ennis, DeRose, Newman, Williamson, DeRigo, and Thomas.
Agents: Triethelyne. 2,4,5-T, carbamates
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Camp Detrick, MD - Fields A, B, D, and E
Dates: 1950
Project Description: The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Experiments were done by Ennis, DeRose, Acker, Newman, Williamson, and Zimmerly.
Agents: 2464, butyl 2,4-D, 974, butyl 2,4,5-T, q:q 143 and 974
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Camp Detrick, MD - Field F
Dates: 1950-51
Project Description: The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Experiments were done by Acker, DeRose, McLane, Newman, Williamson, Baker, Dean, Johnson, Taylor, Walker, and Zimmerly.
Agents: 2464, carbamate, butyl 2,4-D, 143 and 974 (orange?),2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location: Area B, Camp Detrick, MD
Dates: Spring/Summer 1953
Project Description: Personnel at Camp Detrick tested the feasibility of using an experimental spray tower for applying a mixture of chemical anticrop agents to broad-leaf crops.
Agents: 3:1 mixture 2, 4-D and 2, 4, 5-T
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Fort Detrick, MD; Fort Ritchie, MD
Dates: 1956-57
Project Description: In 1956 And 1957, defoliation and desiccation were carried out at Fort Detrick and Fort Ritchie, Maryland by the Chemical Corps and Biological Warfare Research. These were bench tests.
Agents: Various, 577 compounds
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Fort Detrick, MD
Dates: 8/1961 - 6/1963
Project Description: From 8/1961 to 6/1963, compounds were spray-tested in the greenhouse to evaluate them as effective defoliants, desiccants, and herbicides.
Agents: 1410 compounds
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Fort Ritchie, MD

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Dates: 1963
Project Description: Various studies were done to explore the effectiveness of different herbicides. They were all field trials. These studies were done by personnel from the US Army Biological Laboratories.
Agents: Tordon, 2,4-D, Orange, diquat, endothal, and combinations of each with Tordon
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Fort Meade, MD
Dates: 1963
Project Description: Various studies were done to explore the effectiveness of different herbicides. They were all field trials. These studies were done by personnel from the US Army Biological Laboratories.
Agents: Cacodylic acid, Dowco 173, butyediol
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Poole's Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
Dates: 7/14/1969 -
Project Description: During the week of 7/14/1969, personnel from Naval Applied Science Laboratory in conjunction with personnel from Limited War Laboratory conducted a defoliation test along the shoreline.
Agents: Orange, Orange plus foam, Orange plus foam Orange, Foam
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location: Near Wayside, MS, Wilcox Road, Greenville, MS
Dates: 9/19/1967
Project Description: In 1967, the Dow Chemical Company was awarded a DoD research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species.
Agents: Picloram, bromacil, pyriclor, and terbacil, Orange, cacodylic acid
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

Location: Fulcher Ranch, Greenville, MS
Dates: 4/15/1968
Project Description: In 1967, the Dow Chemical Company was awarded a DoD research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species.
Agents: Picloram and bromicil
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

Location: Gulfport, MS
Dates: 1968-70
Project Description: While discussing the mandatory disposal of Orange, it was mentioned that 15,161 drums were being stored at Gulfport, Mississippi.
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Montana

Location: Galatin Valley near Bozeman, MT
Dates: 7/3/1953, 7/6/1953, 7/14/1953
Project Description: A preliminary series of field evaluations ofchemical agents for attacking wheat using a miniature spraying system mounted on light aircraft were performed by USDA.
Agents: 4- fluorophenoxy-acetic acid and 2 of its esters, 3:1 butyl 2,4-D and butyl 2,4,5-T
DoD Involvement: No

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New York

Location: Fort Drum, NY
Dates: 1959
Project Description: The Commanding General, 1st US Army, requested that Fort Detrick assist with defoliation efforts at Fort Drum. Thirteen drums were sprayed there on 4 square miles from a helicopter spray device.
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

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North Dakota

Location: Langdon, ND; Hays, KS
Dates: 1960
Project Description: Two studies on the stem rust of wheat were conducted during 1960 to obtain data on the establishment, development, and destructiveness of artificially induced stem rust epiphytotics.
Agents: Stem rust of wheat
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Pennsylvania

Location: Stone Valley Experimental Forest in Huntington County and near State College in Centre County, PA
Dates: 3/1969 - 10/1970
Project Description: Soil- applied herbicides were studied by the U of Pa with Ft Detrick for 18 months for their effectiveness, rapidity of action, and duration of response in native stands of central PA grasses, broadleaf weeds and woody plants. These herbicides were spread or sprayed.
Agents: Bromacil, diuron, tandex, fenuron, picloram
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Rhode Island

Location: Kingston, RI
Dates: 7/26/1949, 1950-51
Project Description: The experiments were directed mainly towards the investigation of plant inhibitors applied as sprays or to the soil in the solid form to be taken up by the roots. Experiments were carried out under supervision of T.E. Odland if RI State College. H.T. DeRigo was also there.
Agents: Trieth.2,4,5-T, butyl 2,4,5-T,974
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Tennessee

Location: Tennessee and Georgia
Dates: 1964
Project Description: In 1964, helicopter spray tests were conducted on transmission line rights-of-way by the Georgia Power Company and Tennessee Valley Authority in collaboration with Fort Detrick to evaluate effectiveness of several commercially available herbicides.
Agents: Diquat and Tordon 101, various
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: 1 in TN, 2 areas in FL, 2 areas in GA
Dates: 1968
Project Description: In 1968, emphasis was given to soil applied herbicides for grass control. Applications were made by a jeep-mounted sprayer on small plots or by helicopter on larger plots.
Agents: Bromacil, Tandex, monuron, diuron, and fenuron
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Location: Beaumont, TX
Dates: 6/1944
Project Description: Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick. Here, they were testing on rice crops.
Agents: LN *phenoxy
DoD Involvement: No

Location: Beaumont, TX
Dates: 1950-51
Project Description: The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Here, irrigation water studies were done with the agent. Coghill, Hasse, and Yeatner worked here.
Agents: 2,4-D
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

Location: Weslaco, TX
Dates: 5/1967 - 1/1969
Project Description: 71 new arsenic compounds were tested in primary screening against 6 plant species in greenhouse tests. Then, 5 of the most active compounds were tested in field trials against Red Maple and compared to formulations of cacodylic acid and a 50:50 blend of orange and sodium cacodylate. The Ansul Co. for DoD.
Agents: Arsenic compounds, Orange, cacodylic acid, sodium cacodylate
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Utah

Location: Granite Peak, UT
Dates: Summer 1945
Project Description: Small plot experiments were commenced to test the effectiveness of LN agents. Various trials were done under contract with the USDA, aided by personnel at Camp Detrick. Here, it was dropping trials.
Agents: LN *phenoxy
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Washington

: Prosser, WA
Dates: 1950-51
Project Description: The purpose was to determine means of accomplishing defoliation of tropical forest vegetation by application of a chemical agent. Here, irrigation water studies were done with the agent. V.F. Burns worked here.
Agents: 2,4-D
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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Wisconsin

Location: Marinette, WI
Dates: 5/1967 - 1/1969
Project Description: 71 new arsenic compounds were tested in primary screening against 6 plant species in greenhouse tests. Then, 5 of the most active compounds were tested in field trials against Red Maple and compared to formulations of cacodylic acid and a 50:50 blend of orange and sodium cacodylate. The Ansul Co. for DoD.
Agents: Arsenic compounds, Orange, cacodylic acid, sodium cacodylate
DoD Involvement: Yes

 

 

Agent Orange: Herbicide Tests and Storage Outside the U.S.

Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam were tested or stored elsewhere, including in countries outside of the U.S. Below is information from the Department of Defense (DoD) on projects to test, dispose of, or store herbicides outside the U.S. For projects in the U.S., go to

Cambodia

Location: Southeastern part of Kompong Cham Province and Dar and Prek Clong plantations, Cambodia
Dates: 6/1969
Project Description: In 6/1969, the US government received notice of charge by Cambodian government that major defoliation damage to the Cambodian rubber plantation near the RVN border had occurred as a result of US defoliation activity. This was confirmed by a team of experts.
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Canada

Location: Base Gagetown near Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
Dates: 6/20/1967 - 6/24/1967
Project Description: During the period of 12/1966 - 10/1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick's Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and U of HI.
Agents: Basic desiccants and Orange, Blue, various
DoD Involvement: Yes

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India

Location: Kumbla, South India
Dates: 1945-1946
Project Description: The main objective of the experiments was to determine the feasibility of accomplishing severe injury or destruction of tropical food crops by the application of growth-inhibiting (LN*) compounds in static trials. Field plantings were treated with various agents at different rates in different forms.
Agents: LN compounds *phenoxy
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Korea

 Korea, third Brigade, 2nd Division area
Dates: 7/23/1968 - 7/24/1968
Project Description: In 1968, chemicals were sent from the Plant Sciences Lab, Ft Detrick, MD, to the Republic of Korea for the purpose of testing their effectiveness in the control of vegetation.
Agents: Hyvar XWS, tandex, Urox B, Urox Oil concentrate (liquids) bromacil, tandex, Urox 22 (solids)
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location Location: Korea, third Brigade, 2nd Division area
Dates: 10/3/1968
Project Description: In 1968, chemicals were sent from the Plant Sciences Lab, Ft Detrick, MD, to the Republic of Korea for the purpose of testing their effectiveness in the control of vegetation.
Agents: Hyvar XWS, tandex, Urox B, Urox Oil concentrate (liquids) bromacil, tandex, Urox 22 (solids)
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location

Laos
Dates: 12/1965 - 1967
Project Description: In December 1965, herbicide operations were begun in Laos, with sorties being flown from Tan Son Nhut and Da Nang. The purpose was the exposure of foot trails, dirt roads and other LOCs that crossed into SVN. This network leads from NVN, through the eastern panhandle, to Combodian border.
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Puerto Rico

Location

Las Mesas and La Jagua experimental areas at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Dates: 2/1956 - 6/1956
Project Description: During February to June, 9 chemicals were evaluated in PR on 16 genera tropical woody plants. The chemicals were applied in highly concentrated solutions with a microsprayer to the leaves.
Agents: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, pentachlorophenol, ammate, weedazol, endothal Harvestaid, Butyne -1,4-diol
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location

: Guanica and Joyuda, Puerto Rico
Dates: 6/1956 - 9/1956
Project Description: 9 chemicals were evaluated on 16 genera of tropical woody between June and September. The chemicals were sprayed to duplicate small branches, using a microsprayer.
Agents: 2,4,5-T, potassium cyanate, amiendo, F-2, 6-Ca-4, Y-F Tree and Brush Kiler, ACP M-118, ShedA-Leaf
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Mesas and La Jagua, Mayaguez, Joyuda at Cabo Rojo, and Guanica Insular Forest at Guanica, Puerto Rico
Dates: 9/1956-12/1956
Project Description: 16 compounds with defoliating properties were evaluated using 28 different tropical woody plants, each representing a separate genus. The chemicals were applied to duplicate small branches with a microsprayer and to single larger branches or whole trees with a 2-gallon knapsack sprayer.
Agents: 6-Ca-4,Liojn Oil,2,4,5-T, B-1613, B-1638, Ammate, V-C1-186, endothal, shed-a-leaf, M-118, Y-F,esteron 2,4-D,F3,F4,F5,F6
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Las Mesas and La Jagua, Mayaguez, Guanica Beach, Puerto Rico
Dates: 1/1957 - 3/1957
Project Description: 7 compounds were evaluated on 29 different woody plants to determine their effectiveness as defoliants, desiccants, and as killing agents. They were applied with a microsprayer to the upper leaf surfaces of duplicate small branches.

Agents: V-C 3-105, V-C 1-21, V-C 1-443, F-7, TBP, Phillips 713, V-C 3-173
DoD Involvement: Yes

Dates: 4/1957 - 6/1957
Project Description: 7 compounds were sprayed on 25 different plants in order to evaluate their effectiveness as defoliants, desiccants, and killing agents. The compounds were applied with a microsprayer to the upper and lower leaf surfaces of duplicate small branches.
Agents: B-1676, B-1638, NP 1098, SD 1369, Ammate, Shed-a-leaf
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location: Las Mesas and La Jagua, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Dates: 7/1957 - 12/1957
Project Description: 8 different spray formulations were applied to 16 different tropical trees and shrubs in order to evaluate their effectiveness as defoliants, desiccants, and killing agents.
Agents: MgClO3, Golden Harvest Defoliant, Dow-M562, F-8, F9, F-10, F-11, F-12
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: 

Loquillo, Puerto Rico
Dates: 4/1966, 10/1966
Project Description: Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables.
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location

: Las Marias, Puerto Rico
Dates: 2/1967 - 12/1967
Project Description: During the period of 12/1966 - 10/1967, a comprehensive short-term evaluation was conducted by personnel from Fort Detrick's Plant Science Lab in coordination with contract research on formulations by chemical industry and field tests by USDA and U of HI.
Agents: Various, including Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes

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Location: Near Rio Grande, on the northeast coast of Puerto Rico
Dates: 8/23/1967, 10/18/1967, 12/21/1967-12/26/1967
Project Description: In 1967, the Dow Chemical Company was awarded a DoD research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species.
Agents: Picloram, bromacil, pyriclor, and terbacil
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

Location: Las Mesas Cerros, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Dates: 5/24/1968, 5/26/1968, 5/27/1968
Project Description: In 1967, the Dow Chemical Company was awarded a DoD research contract. The objective was to prepare as pellets mixtures of various herbicides and to test them on varying vegetation situations for the control of a range of plant species.
Agents: Picloram, bromacil, pyriclor
DoD Involvement: Undetermined

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At Sea

Location: At Sea
Dates: Summer 1977
Project Description: In 1977, the USAF incinerated 2.22 million gallons of Herbicide Orange at sea in an operation entitled PACER HO. Extensive industrial hygiene sampling efforts supporting the transfer operations at Gulfport, MS and Johnston Island indicated all exposures were inconsequential (2-3 orders of magnitude below the TLVs for 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T).
Agents: Orange
DoD Involvement: Yes (Gulfport, MS); No (Johnston Island)

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Thailand

Location: Replacement Training Center of the Royal Thai Army near Pranburi, Thailand
Dates: 1964 and 1965

Project Description: An extensive series of tests were conducted by Fort Detrick during 1964 and 1965 in collaboration with the Military Research and Development Center of Thailand. The objective was to perform onsite evaluation of phytotoxic chemicals on vegetation in SE Asia.
Agents: Orange, Purple
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Thailand

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Dates: 1964-65
Project Description: Sponsored by ARPA; ARPA Order 423, Between the mentioned dates, there was a large-scale test program to determine effectiveness of mentioned agents in defoliation of upland forest or jungle vegetation representative of SEA.
Agents: Purple, Orange, Others
DoD Involvement: Yes

Location: Thailand
Dates: 1964-65
Project Description: Field tests of defoliants were designed to evaluate such variables as rates, volume of application, season, and vegetation. Data from aerial application tests at several CONUS and OCONUS locations are provided in tables.
Agents: Orange, Blue

DoD Involvement: Yes

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